Term Glossary


An online marketing campaign contains a set of ad groups, or ad sets (depending on the platform used). It is a way of organizing ad categories by location, time zone, product, service, etc. Often budgets are set at the campaign level, allowing you to control spend of each category within your ad account.

Canonical URL

A canonical URL is an HTML defined link element that helps websites avoid possible duplicate content penalties from search engines by defining the canonical, or preferred, version of a web page as part of SEO best practice. A common example where a canonical URL must be defined is on an eCommerce site that will have a single product with multiple versions (such as size, color, etc.) that cause the exact same product copy to appear on multiple unique URLS.


A click is what happens when you select an item online by holding your mouse curser over it and pressing down. In the digital marketing world: when a user sees a link to your site (either though an ad or organic search result) they will click on it if it’s most relevant to their search query. This click will direct them to your website, where you’ll then try to engage with them further about your product or service.

Click Through Rate (CTR)

CTR stands for click-through rate. It is a measure of the ratio of users who click on a specific ad to the total users who have viewed it. For example: if an ad was shown 100 times, and clicked on 5 times, it would have a CTR of 5%. CTR is a common key performance indicator which helps determine the success or failure of a particular ad or keyword.


A conversion takes place when a user completes the designated goal on your web page. For example, for an eCommerce website, this could be when a user makes a purchase on your site. Conversions can take different forms depending on your industry and specific marketing goals. They could be a click on an email, spending a certain amount of time on a particular page, clicking on a link, and so on.

Conversion Rate

Conversion rate is the percentage of users who completed the designated goal on your web page. For example, say you run an online shoe store: If you have 1000 visitors to your web page featuring a pair of black tennis shoes, and 100 of those users purchase sneakers, you would have a conversion rate of 10% on that page. Often times, conversion rates are much lower than this example, in which case advertisers will employ conversion rate optimization testing (or landing page testing) to increase these rates.

Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO)

In digital marketing, conversion rate optimization is a strategy for increasing the percentage of visitors to a website that end up converting into customers or complete a desired action on a page of your website – such as as downloading a white paper or completing a lead form. Also commonly referred to as conversion optimization or CRO for short.


Cookies, though not as tasty as you might hope, are a useful way of keeping track of your site’s visitor behavior. They are files stored in a user’s computer which hold data that’s specific to a particular website. That data is then accessed by a web server, which allows it to deliver a page that’s tailored to the user. It’s an easy way to carry information from one user session to the next, without the server having to store a large amount of data.

Cost Per Click (CPC)

CPC is the cost per click that you pay for your ads. It is a measurement of the actual price you pay for each click in your PPC campaign. You will accrue a balance with ad publishers using a CPC model each time a user clicks your ad and is directed to your web page.


CPM, or cost per thousand impressions, is the way we define the price you pay for your ad to be shown to users 1,000 times.  For example, if you’re advertising with Google Adwords, and your CPM is $2.00 – you’ll pay $2.00 for every 1,000 impressions on your ad. This is an alternate metric from CPC – which measures how much you pay each time a user clicks on your ad.


A crawl, or web crawl, involves the process of spiders traveling from site to site, gathering information for search engines to index all while paying attention to broken links, new sites and changes to existing sites. The internet is a constantly changing place, and crawls allow search engines to have a better idea of what is out there at all times. During a web crawl, spiders gather information about site content based on keywords and backlinks, and use that to help keep SERPs accurate and relevant.